This is a description of the winti religion that is applicable to the story 'The Ashanti tales'. It is not an extensive treatise. Many concepts are discussed in the novella series itself and are explained by the character Mazra Basu, among others.
Winti is an Afro-Surinamese religion that is, among other places, practiced in Suriname. The literal translation of Winti is 'wind'. Winti is also a collective term for all the gods and supernatural beings that are part of the pantheon of which Anana Keduaman Keduampon is the creator. Anana Keduaman Keduampon means 'god, the creator of heaven and earth, the first spirit'. This term comes from the Fante Akan tribes in Ghana.
Nothing can happen without Anana's approval, according to the Winti religion. The gods are also seen as angels, some of which are seen as archangels. Winti mainly comes from the descendants of the Ewe-Fon, the Fante-Akan and the Western Bantu kingdoms. Religiously, these people had much in common. They believed in a supreme god who was seen as the creator of man and the universe. Under this supreme god there was a hierarchical structure consisting of higher and lower gods. They also believed in the immortality of the human soul (kra) and the related ancestor cult. It is these important aspects that different (African) religions have in common and that are expressed in the Winti religion in Suriname. In the Winti religion, one also knows the 'fall of man', in which the deity turns its back on humanity and takes away its visibility. However, Anana Keduaman Keduampon has ordered the wintis (angels) to assist and protect the sinful man. In this appendix I discuss a number of important concepts.



Karma, according to the winti religion, is the divine spark in man. Karma is pure and indivisible and cannot be influenced by man. Direct communication with the karma is not possible. The karma does have messengers, the djodjo and the jejé. The djodjo are the supernatural parents of an individual. They are guardian spirits that consist of a male and a female winti. These wintis are part of the kra (soul) of the individual. The kra bear both the male and female day names of the Ashanti*, an African people from Ghana. Part of the Creole population in Suriname is descended from the Ashanti. Jéjé means 'own self', cine qua, the human ego. This word comes from the Fante Akan and the Ewe Fon.
When someone dies, that person's karma returns to Anana. The jéjé becomes a jorka (spirit of a deceased who still possesses the properties of the deceased). A jorka of a relative is called a kabra. A kabra is also an ancestral spirit that presides over a bere, kinsman group, or extended family. According to certain rituals (which are described in the story 'The Ashanti Tales') it is possible to communicate with the jéjé, because it is connected to the earth and the cosmos. Jorkas have a 'life' on earth. For a jorka, the "day" begins when the night begins for us. They often protect their living relatives and still have the same character and appearance that they had when alive. A djoembi is a wandering ghost with a very hazy mist-like appearance. A djoembi is not at rest.


This is a very important fact in the winti religion and has a multiple explanation. The key word here is 'spirit'. A pure obia comes only from the divine power of Anana Keduaman Keduampon. An obia is usually seen as an inspired object that serves to protect and gain insight. An obiaman understands the art of interpreting a problem situation and providing advice in this regard. The obiaman regularly makes an obia, which can be seen as a protective amulet. An obia can also serve as medicine, often this concerns a mixture of herbs that must be taken. An obia can also be energized with the help of a wasi [wassie}, (a ritual ablution that uses herbs, among other things). In the story 'the Ashanti tales', several examples are given of the making of an obia and the care of a wasi.


The Wintis
The Wintis are divided into 4 elements, water, air, earth and 'forest'. The ranking among the wintis is shown with the diagram below with Anana at the head.
1. Anana Keduaman Keduampon, God, the first spirit, the creator of the universe
2. The higher gods/angels (e.g. Luangu, Kromanti, Mama Aisa, Tata Opete)
3. The minor gods/angels (e.g. Kantamasi, Ampuku, Akantasi)
4. Benign or Evil Entities (e.g. Bakru, Leba, Jorka, Djumbi)
Mama Aisa and the Kromanti belong to the higher wintis. Because these wintis play an important role in the story, I will give a slightly more extensive description of them. Other wintis are included in the glossary and are presented more briefly. A number of these wintis are also reviewed in the story itself and their quality and characteristics are discussed in the story.

The Kromanti is seen as a powerful African deity who controls the element of air and is able to fly. There are several Kromanti wintis over which Tata Opete Jaw is in charge. The Kromanti winti has 7 brothers. These wintis can work together. The Kromanti can unite all 7 qualities when there is a situation that requires strong action. According to tradition, the Kromanti are wintis, associated with the ancestors and their descendants and never left their side, even when they were taken from Africa. A summary of the Kromanti brada (brothers) can be found below.
-The Djibri Kromanti. This is a war god. The medium that summons him can therefore show the extraordinary physical strength of this winti.
-The Tapu Kromanti is very receptive and can be combined with other wintis.
-The Adumakuku Kromanti is praised for its speed and magical power.
-The Mafu Kromanti winti are messengers. They are seers and healers and can share these qualities with their followers.
-The Seti or Tapoe Kromanti winti reveals itself by means of signs in which they prefer to use birds. They can also make themselves known through other animals.
-The Luangu winti comes from Africa. This winti protects against malicious entities. What is remarkable about this winti is that it also belongs to the element earth and is both male and female.
-The Tompu Kromanti, who summons it is capable of impossible physical feats. Many are afraid of the Tompu Kromanti.
-The Sofia Bada Kromanti is also feared. It is said that with this winti there is continuous blood from the genitals.
-The Adjani Kromanti has a cat, lion or tiger as appearance. The one he takes possession of shows the behavior of a feline. Dogs and livestock are killed immediately by him or her. The one who is possessed likes to drink a dog's blood.
-The Kreoro Tapu Kromanti likes to be around people and is gentle and helpful.
-The Prasoro Kromanti controls the skies. He is eloquent, has refined manners and possesses an extraordinary beauty. He is a healer who is capable of restoring harmony to both the physical and astral bodies. Even when there is fyo fyo (brouille) the Prasoro Kromanti can restore harmony within a group or a bere (family).
Mama Aisa is in charge of all wintis and with almost every ritual her permission is asked before proceeding with the actions. Mama Aisa  protects her children and shares her knowledge within the dream dimension. Mama Aisa (Mama fu doti), mother earth, is in charge of the grong wintis (earth wintis). If her advice is not followed, she may become angry and turn the matter over to the lesser gods, preferring the Ampuku. Mama Aisa has a man named Tata Loko, with whom she often consults. The Papa Winti is also a grong winti that forms a unit with Aisa.

The Kantamasi winti
The Kantamasi is a lower forest winti and shows similarities with the Ampuku winti. The Kantamasi winti originated in Suriname, the Ampuku winti in Africa. The origin of the Kantamasi is directly related to the existence of the Ampuku. However, the Kantamasi possesses the gift of dematerialization and can thereby become "invisible" or take on another form. According to tradition, the Maroons took advantage of this and turned into trees. By calling on the Kantamasi winti, the Maroons were able to escape unseen from the slave masters and make a new start in the forests and establish a community. The Kantamasi can also lead people astray.

The Ampuku winti
The Ampuku [ampoekoe] winti is a lower forest winti. According to tradition, he was the last child of Mama Aisa who was not present at the time all powers were divided. To provide him with magical power, Mama Aisa ordered the other wintis to share some of their gifts with the Ampuku, as a result of which it is able to imitate other wintis and serve the higher wintis. The Ampuku is in the service of other higher wintis. Many commands of the higher wintis are performed by the Ampuku.

The Leba winti
A good-natured Leba [Libba] keeps the living environment clean, protects the inhabitants (especially the children) and wards off negativity and evil entities. A malevolent Leba can take possession of a human and incite them to evil behavior. The Leba winti has male and female forms. In many winti rituals, the Leba is asked to make contact with the (family) wintis. The image of a Leba is that of an ancient man or woman, wrapped in rags or banana leaves.

A Bakru [ Bakroo] is an evil lower spirit that performs services for the higher wintis, people can also summon and direct the Bakru winti, especially the Kartiki Bakru [ Kartiekie] that can be made and is similar to a zombie incapable of autonomous thinking and acting. The Kartiki Bakru is often used to gain wealth. It can also be used to take possession of an enemy and destroy him.

The Adoemankama Winti
The Adoemankama winti does not enjoy a good reputation, this winti is feared and only summoned when one really has no other choice. The Adoemankama is a cross between a Bakru and an Ampuku. The effigy is a small boy with a large head and bloodshot eyes. Like other winti, this winti can be inherited by the descendants of those who served and used this winti. This 'inheritance' is rather kept secret by the family to which it applies.